English and Mulley are an independent optical practice providing the highest clinical care, offering the finest quality products in all areas of eyecare and tailoring this to your individual style. We pride ourselves in our attention to detail.
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Eye Care


This measures the error in focus of an eye by reflecting its moving light from the retina, the structure containing the nerves which capture the light waves and sends the electrical signals to the brain. If the light is defocussed on the retina, a powered lens is used to bring it into focus and so create a clear image.

Refractor Head

This holds the range of powered lenses used to focus the light onto the retina. It is placed in front of the patient’s eyes without any weight being carried on the nose.


This is a microscope which can be used with magnification to view the tears and the anterior eye. It allows assessment of the physiology of the eye. It will show any damage caused by trauma or a foreign body. It is used in contact lens work to assess the fit of the contact lens. Auxiliary lenses will be used in association with the slitlamp to assess particular areas of the anterior eye.


This allows assessment of the internal eye by focussing light through the pupil and other transparent structures onto areas of the internal eye including the inner back surface of the eye, the retina.


This is used to capture photographic images from both the slitlamp and the fundus camera.


This measures the Intra Ocular Pressure of the eye. Most often the type of tonometer used will involve a little puff of air directed onto the eye. This gives a measurement in mmHg of the pressure of the eye.   

Visual Field Analyser

This assesses the function and sensitivity of the retinal nerves we use in low light levels.


This provides a contour map of the shape and refractive power of the cornea.


This assesses, with specifically coloured lenses, if relief can be gained from visual stress. This can benefit those suffering from dyslexia and light sensitive migraine.

Binocular Stability Tests

These tests establish the state of the binocular vision and determine any insufficiency.

When you have your eye examination with us please ask the optometrist if you would like more explanation of any of the tests.
Please contact us to arrange an appointment for an eye examination.


Science Sunglasses


The spectral composition of sunlight

Talking about sunglass lenses, here are some notes on the spectral composition of sunlight.
The solar radiation spectrum includes radiations in a band between 190 to 2300 nanometres (nm)*. The human eye perceives the band between 400 and 780 nm:. In the following graph this band is divided by wavelength and their corresponding perceived colours:

Eye Care







* is the wavelength unit of measurement corresponding to one billionth of a metre

The invisible spectrum: ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) radiations

UV is high-energy radiation in the 190-400 nm band. They are dangerous for all biological tissues and in particular for the eye which does not "see" them since they do not reach the retina.

This type of radiation is usually divided into three intervals:

• UVC (190-280 nm): they are blocked by the ozone layer and hence not reaching the ground level
• UVB (280-320 nm): they reach the ground level and are absorbed by the cornea and the crystalline lens of the eye. They can be dangerous even after brief exposures
• UVA (320-400 nm): they penetrate to ground level to greater extent than UVB. These radiations pass through the cornea and are absorbed by the crystalline lens protecting the retina.


The intensity of UV rays increases one time every 10 meters of elevation above the sea level

It is 180 times more intense on the beach because of the great reflection caused by the sand

Vulnerability to UV rays increases with ageing

Overexposure to UV rays causes the eye to adjust slower to the dark

IR radiation lays in the 700-2300 nm band. It is dissipated at all levels by the eyeball and does not concentrate on the lens of the eye (like UV) or in the retina (like blue light, see further down). Since it is not damaging to the eye, absorbing filters are only required in industrial applications.

The visible spectrum: a colour world

In the case of the visible spectrum, protective eyewear attempts to totally or partially absorb the high-energy visible radiation called blue light (380-500 nm).
The unprotected eye strains to focus on blue light causing chromatic aberration and ageing of the eye, as the retina is ill equipped to perform this function.
The sunglass lens helps to accelerate this process without eliminating completely the blue light, as this would alter the authenticity of the colours.

When does a lens really protect the eye?

When it absorbs the UVA and UVB rays. Their elimination is beneficial to the eye and does not affect our perception of visual images.

However, be careful. Any sunglasses reduce the visible light and thus cause the pupil to dilate, potentially allowing a greater quantity of UV radiation to enter the eye.
A good quality lens must reduce as much as possible the radiation that damages the lens of the eye.

When it efficiently and progressively absorbs the blue light and filters enough light to avoid distorting the other colours. This makes sunglasses suitable to be worn for extended periods without tiring the eye.


Refractor Head



Visual Field

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